Sunday, June 17, 2012

send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared Nehemiah 8:10

New International Version (©1984)
Nehemiah said, "Go and enjoy choice food and sweet drinks, and send some to those who have nothing prepared. This day is sacred to our Lord. Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength."New Living Translation (©2007)
And Nehemiah continued, "Go and celebrate with a feast of rich foods and sweet drinks, and share gifts of food with people who have nothing prepared. This is a sacred day before our Lord. Don't be dejected and sad, for the joy of the LORD is your strength!"
English Standard Version (©2001)
Then he said to them, “Go your way. Eat the fat and drink sweet wine and send portions to anyone who has nothing ready, for this day is holy to our Lord. And do not be grieved, for the joy of the LORD is your strength.”
New American Standard Bible (©1995)
Then he said to them, "Go, eat of the fat, drink of the sweet, and send portions to him who has nothing prepared; for this day is holy to our Lord. Do not be grieved, for the joy of the LORD is your strength."
King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
Then he said unto them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared: for this day is holy unto our Lord: neither be ye sorry; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.
GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
Then he told them, "Go, eat rich foods, drink sweet drinks, and send portions to those who cannot provide for themselves. Today is a holy day for the Lord. Don't be sad because the joy you have in the LORD is your strength."
King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
Then he said unto them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet wine, and send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared: for this day is holy unto our Lord: neither be you grieved; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.
American King James Version
Then he said to them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions to them for whom nothing is prepared: for this day is holy to our LORD: neither be you sorry; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.
American Standard Version
Then he said unto them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions unto him for whom nothing is prepared; for this day is holy unto our Lord: neither be ye grieved; for the joy of Jehovah is your strength.
Douay-Rheims Bible
And he said to them: Go, eat fat meats, and drink sweet wine, and send portions to them that have not prepared for themselves: because it is the holy day of the Lord, and be not sad: for the joy of the Lord is our strength.
Darby Bible Translation
And he said to them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions to them for whom nothing is prepared; for the day is holy to our Lord; and be not grieved, for the joy of Jehovah is your strength.
English Revised Version
Then he said unto them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions unto him for whom nothing is prepared: for this day is holy unto our Lord: neither be ye grieved; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.
Webster's Bible Translation
Then he said to them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions to them for whom nothing is prepared: for this day is holy to our Lord: neither be ye sad; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.
World English Bible
Then he said to them, "Go your way. Eat the fat, drink the sweet, and send portions to him for whom nothing is prepared; for this day is holy to our Lord. Don't be grieved; for the joy of Yahweh is your strength."
Young's Literal Translation
And he saith to them, 'Go, eat fat things, and drink sweet things, and sent portions to him for whom nothing is prepared, for to-day is holy to our Lord, and be not grieved, for the joy of Jehovah is your strength.'
Barnes' Notes on the BibleThe "sending of portions" to the poor is not distinctly mentioned in any but the later historical Scriptures (compare the margin reference). The practice naturally grew out of this injunction of the Law Deuteronomy 16:11,Deuteronomy 16:14.

Clarke's Commentary on the BibleEat the fat, and drink the sweet - Eat and drink the best that you have; and while ye are feeding yourselves in the fear of the Lord, remember those who cannot feast; and send portions to them, that the joy and the thanksgiving may be general. Let the poor have reason to rejoice as well as you.
For the joy of the Lord is your strength - This is no gluttonous and drunken festival that enervates the body, and enfeebles the mind: from your religious feast your bodies will acquire strength and your minds power and fervor, so that you shall be able to Do His will, and to do it cheerfully. Religious joy, properly tempered with continual dependence on the help of God, meekness of mind, and self-diffidence, is a powerful means of strengthening the soul. In such a state every duty is practicable, and every duty delightful. In such a frame of mind no man an ever fell, and in such a state of mind the general health of the body is much improved; a cheerful heart is not only a continual feast, but also a continual medicine.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire BibleThen he said unto them,.... Nehemiah the Tirshatha or governor:
go your way; to their own houses, and refresh themselves; it being noon, and they had stood many hours attentive to the reading and expounding of the law:
eat the fat, and drink the sweet: not a common meal, but a feast, consisting of the richest provisions, the best of food and liquors
and send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared; for the poor, who had no food at home provided for them; the widow, fatherless, and stranger, who at festivals were to partake of the entertainment, Deuteronomy 16:11
for this day is holy unto our Lord: neither be you sorry; confirming what the Levites had said and exhorted to,Nehemiah 8:9
for the joy of the Lord is your strength; to rejoice, as the Lord commanded them on such days as these, was a means both of increasing their bodily strength and their inward strength, and of fitting them the more to perform their duty to God and men with cheerfulness, which sorrow and heaviness made unfit for; and the joy which has the Lord for its object, and comes from him, is the cause of renewing spiritual strength, so as to run and not be weary, walk and not faint, in the ways of God.

Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old TestamentAnd he said to them (viz., Nehemiah as governor and head of the community, though the fact that his address is mentioned does not exclude the participation of Ezra and the Levites): "Go, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send gifts to them for whom nothing is prepared, for this day is holy to our Lord; neither be ye sorry, for joy in Jahve is your refuge." משׁמנּים, fatnesses (λιπάσματα, lxx), fat pieces of meat, not "rich cakes" (Bertheau); comp. שׁמנים משׁתּה, Isaiah 25:6. ממתּקּים, sweetened drinks. The sense is: Make glad repasts on good feast-day food and drink; and send portions to the poor who have prepared nothing, that they too may rejoice on this festival. מנות, gifts, are portions of food; Esther 9:19Esther 9:221 Samuel 1:4. Hence we see that it was customary with the Israelites to send portions of food and drink, on festivals, to the houses of the poor, that they too might share in the joy of the day. נכון לאן for נכון אין לאשׁר (see rem. on 1 Chronicles 15:12), to them for whom nothing is prepared, who have not the means to prepare a feast-day meal. Because the day is holy to the Lord, they are to desire it with holy joy. יהוה חדות is a joy founded on the feeling of communion with the Lord, on the consciousness that we have in the Lord a God long-suffering and abundant in goodness and truth (Exodus 34:6). This joy is to be to them מעוז, a strong citadel or refuge, because the Almighty is their God; comp. Jeremiah 16:19.

Geneva Study BibleThen he said unto them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions unto them for whom nothing is {f} prepared: for this day is holy unto our Lord: neither be ye sorry; for the {g} joy of the LORD is your strength.
(f) That is, remember the poor.
(g) Rejoice in the Lord, and he will give you strength.

Wesley's Notes8:10 Eat - Feast before the Lord. Send - For the relief of your poor brethren. Holy - Being the feast of trumpets, and the beginning of this joyful month, wherein so many days of thanksgiving were to be observed. Strength - Rejoicing in God in serving him with chearfulness, and thankfulness, which is your duty always, but now especially, will give you that strength both of mind and body, which you greatly need, both to perform all the duties required of you, and to oppose all the designs of your enemies.

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary8:9-12 It was a good sign that their hearts were tender, when they heard the words of the law. The people were to send portions to those for whom nothing was prepared. It is the duty of a religious feast, as well as of a religious fast, to draw out the soul to the hungry; God's bounty should make us bountiful. We must not only give to those that offer themselves, but send to those out of sight. Their strength consisted in joy in the Lord. The better we understand God's word, the more comfort we find in it; the darkness of trouble arises from the darkness of ignorance.

Saturday, June 16, 2012

Promise and Promises in the Bible - Topical Study Promise Verses

PromiseUsed by Paul to denote the spiritual gifts of God, chiefly the Messiah, the Holy Spirit, and the fullness of gospel blessings, of which an assurance was given to Abraham and other saints in behalf of themselves, and of believers who should come after them, Romans 4:13-14 Galatians 3:14-29. The "children of the promise" are either Isaac's posterity, as distinguished from Ishmael's; Jews converted to Christianity; or all true believers, who by faith lay hold on the promise of salvation in Christ. In Hebrews 11:39, "promise" means the thing promised, Acts 1:4. The "exceeding great and precious promises" of God include all good things for this life and the future; which are infallibly secured to his people in Christ, 1 Corinthians 1:20 1 Timothy 4:8 2 Peter 1:4. On the ground of the infinite merits of their Redeemer, infinite love, unbounded wisdom, and almighty power are pledged for their benefit; and having given them his only son, God will with him freely give them every inferior blessing he sees to be desirable for them, Romans 8:32.

PROMISEprom'-is (most frequently in the Old Testament dabhar, "speaking," "speech," and dabhar, "to speak" also 'amar, "to say," once in Psalm 77:8, 'omer, "speech"; in the New Testament epaggelia, and the verbs epaggellomai, and compounds): Promise holds an important place in the Scriptures and in the development of the religion that culminated in Christ. The Bible is indeed full of "precious and exceeding great promises" (2 Peter 1:4), although the word "promise" is not always used in connection with them. Of the more outstanding promises of the Old Testament may be mentioned:

(1) the proto-evangelium (Genesis 3:15);

(2) the promise to Noah no more to curse the ground, etc. (Genesis 8:21, 22Genesis 9:1-17);

(3) most influential, the promise to Abraham to make of him a great nation in whom all families of the earth should be blessed, to give to him and his seed the land of Canaan (Genesis 12:2, 7, etc.), often referred to in the Old Testament (Exodus 12:25 Deuteronomy 1:8, 11Deuteronomy 6:3;Deuteronomy 9:28, etc.);

(4) the promise to David to continue his house on the throne (2 Samuel 7:12, 13, 18 1 Kings 2:24, etc.);

(5) the promise of restoration of Israel, of the Messiah, of the new and everlasting kingdom, of the new covenant and outpouring of the Spirit (Isaiah 2:2-5Isaiah 4:2Isaiah 55:5Isaiah 66:13Jeremiah 31:31-34Jeremiah 32:37-42; 33:14 Ezekiel 36:22-31Ezekiel 37:11; 39:25 f, etc.).

In the New Testament these promises are founded on, and regarded as having their true fulfillment in, Christ and those who are His (2 Corinthians 1:20 Ephesians 3:6). The promise of the Spirit is spoken of by Jesus as "the promise of my Father" (Luke 24:49 Acts 1:4), and this was regarded as fulfilled at Pentecost. The promise of a Saviour of the seed of David is regarded as fulfilled in Christ (Acts 13:23, 32, 26:6 Romans 1:2Romans 4:13Romans 9:4). Paul argues that the promise to Abraham that he should be "heir of the world," made to him before circumcision, is not confined to Israel, but is open to all who are children of Abraham by faith (Romans 4:13-16; compare Galatians 3:16, 19, 29). In like manner the writer to the Hebrews goes back to the original promises, giving them a spiritual and eternal significance (4:1; 6:17; 11:9, etc.). The New Testament promises include manifold blessings and hopes, among them "life," "eternal life" (1 Timothy 4:81 Timothy 6:19 2 Timothy 1:1 James 1:12), the "kingdom" (James 2:5), Christ's "coming" (2 Peter 3:9, etc.), "new heavens and a new earth" (2 Peter 3:13), etc. For "promise" and "promised" in the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) has frequently other terms, as "word" (Psalm 105:42), "spake," "spoken" (Deuteronomy 10:9 Joshua 9:21Joshua 22:4Joshua 23:5, 15, etc.), "consented" (Luke 22:6), etc. References to the promises occur repeatedly in the Apocrypha (Baruch 2:34; 2 Maccabees 2:18; The Wisdom of Solomon 12:21; compare 2 Esdras 3:15; 5:29).

W. L. Walker

1. (a.) In general, a declaration, written or verbal, made by one person to another, which binds the person who makes it to do, or to forbear to do, a specified act; a declaration which gives to the person to whom it is made a right to expect or to claim the performance or forbearance of a specified act.
2. (n.) An engagement by one person to another, either in words or in writing, but properly not under seal, for the performance or nonperformance of some particular thing. The word promise is used to denote the mere engagement of a person, without regard to the consideration for it, or the corresponding duty of the party to whom it is made.
3. (a.) That which causes hope, expectation, or assurance; especially, that which affords expectation of future distinction; as, a youth of great promise.
4. (a.) Bestowal, fulfillment, or grant of what is promised.
5. (v. t.) To engage to do, give, make, or to refrain from doing, giving, or making, or the like; to covenant; to engage; as, to promise a visit; to promise a cessation of hostilities; to promise the payment of money.
6. (v. t.) To afford reason to expect; to cause hope or assurance of; as, the clouds promise rain.
7. (v. t.) To make declaration of or give assurance of, as some benefit to be conferred; to pledge or engage to bestow; as, the proprietors promised large tracts of land; the city promised a reward.
8. (v. i.) To give assurance by a promise, or binding declaration.
9. (v. i.) To afford hopes or expectation; to give ground to expect good; rarely, to give reason to expect evil.
Promise (112 Occurrences)
Luke 1:37 For no promise from God will be impossible of fulfilment." (WEY)
Luke 24:49 Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 11:40 "Did I not promise you," replied Jesus, "that if you believe, you shall see the glory of God?" (WEY)
John 16:26 At that time you will make your requests in my name; and I do not promise to ask the Father on your behalf, (WEY)
Acts 1:4 Being assembled together with them, he commanded them, "Don't depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which you heard from me. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 2:33 Being therefore exalted by the right hand of God, and having received from the Father thepromise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this, which you now see and hear. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 2:39 For the promise is to you, and to your children, and to all who are far off, even as many as the Lord our God will call to himself." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:5 He gave him no inheritance in it, no, not so much as to set his foot on. He promised that he would give it to him for a possession, and to his seed after him, when he still had no child. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:17 "But as the time of the promise came close which God had sworn to Abraham, the people grew and multiplied in Egypt, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:23 From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise,(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:32 We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:33 that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm,'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' (See NAS)
Acts 18:21 but took leave of them with the promise, "I will return to you, God willing." So he set sail from Ephesus. (WEY NIV)
Acts 23:21 Therefore don't yield to them, for more than forty men lie in wait for him, who have bound themselves under a curse neither to eat nor to drink until they have killed him. Now they are ready, looking for the promise from you." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 26:6 Now I stand here to be judged for the hope of the promise made by God to our fathers,(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 26:7 Unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come. For which hope's sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews. (KJV WEY ASV WBS NAS NIV)
Romans 4:13 For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 4:14 For if those who are of the law are heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of no effect. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 4:16 For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that thepromise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 4:17 so that the promise should be made sure to all Abraham's true descendants; not merely to those who are righteous through the Law, but to those who are righteous through a faith like that of Abraham. Thus in the sight of God in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead and makes reference to things that do not exist, as though they did, Abraham is the forefather of all of us. As it is written, "I have appointed you to be the forefather of many nations." (WEY)
Romans 4:20 Yet, looking to the promise of God, he didn't waver through unbelief, but grew strong through faith, giving glory to God, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 4:21 and being fully assured that what he had promised, he was able also to perform. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 9:7 nor because they are Abraham's true children. But the promise was "Through Isaac shall your posterity be reckoned." (WEY)
Romans 9:8 That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 9:9 For this is a word of promise, "At the appointed time I will come, and Sarah will have a son." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 3:14 that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 3:17 Now I say this. A covenant confirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundred thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of no effect. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 3:18 For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more of promise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 3:19 What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions, until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It was ordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 3:22 But the Scriptures imprisoned all things under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 3:29 If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise.(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 4:23 However, the son by the handmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free woman was born through promise(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 4:28 Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 1:13 in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the Good News of your salvation,-in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 2:12 that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 3:6 that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the Good News, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 6:2 "Honor your father and mother," which is the first commandment with a promise:(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 6:3 which is the first command with a promise, 'That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live a long time upon the land.' (YLT)
1 Timothy 4:8 For bodily exercise has some value, but godliness has value in all things, having thepromise of the life which is now, and of that which is to come. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Timothy 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, according to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Titus 1:2 in hope of eternal life, which God, who can't lie, promised before time began; (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 4:1 Let us fear therefore, lest perhaps anyone of you should seem to have come short of a promise of entering into his rest. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 6:13 For when God made a promise to Abraham, since he could swear by none greater, he swore by himself, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 6:15 Thus, having patiently endured, he obtained the promise(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 6:17 In this way God, being determined to show more abundantly to the heirs of thepromise the immutability of his counsel, interposed with an oath; (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 9:15 For this reason he is the mediator of a new covenant, since a death has occurred for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant, that those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 10:23 let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering; for he who promised is faithful. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 10:36 For you need endurance so that, having done the will of God, you may receive thepromise(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 11:9 By faith, he lived as an alien in the land of promise, as in a land not his own, dwelling in tents, with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 11:11 By faith, even Sarah herself received power to conceive, and she bore a child when she was past age, since she counted him faithful who had promised. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 11:39 These all, having had testimony given to them through their faith, didn't receive thepromise(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 12:26 whose voice shook the earth then, but now he has promised, saying, "Yet once more I will shake not only the earth, but also the heavens." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 1:12 Blessed is the man who endures temptation, for when he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to those who love him. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Peter 2:19 While they promise them liberty, they themselves are the servants of corruption: for of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage. (KJV WEY WBS RSV NIV)
2 Peter 3:4 and saying, "Where is the promise of his coming? For, from the day that the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Peter 3:9 The Lord is not slow concerning his promise, as some count slowness; but is patient with us, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Peter 3:13 But, according to his promise, we look for new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 John 2:25 This is the promise which he promised us, the eternal life. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 47:29 The time drew near that Israel must die, and he called his son Joseph, and said to him, "If now I have found favor in your sight, please put your hand under my thigh, and deal kindly and truly with me. Please don't bury me in Egypt, (See RSV NIV)
Exodus 3:17 and I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, to a land flowing with milk and honey."' (See RSV NIV)
Numbers 14:34 After the number of the days in which ye searched the land, even forty days, each day for a year, shall ye bear your iniquities, even forty years, and ye shall know my breach ofpromise(KJV WBS)
Numbers 23:19 God is not a man, that he should lie, nor the son of man, that he should repent. Has he said, and will he not do it? Or has he spoken, and will he not make it good? (See NIV)
Numbers 30:6 "If she is married to a husband, while her vows are on her, or the rash utterance of her lips, with which she has bound her soul, (See NIV)
Numbers 30:8 And if in the day of her husband's hearing he disalloweth her, then he hath broken her vow which 'is' on her, and the wrongful utterance of her lips which she hath bound on her soul, and Jehovah is propitious to her. (See NIV)
Deuteronomy 26:17 Jehovah thou hast caused to promise to-day to become thy God, and to walk in His ways, and to keep His statutes, and His commands, and His judgments, and to hearken to His voice. (YLT)
Deuteronomy 26:18 and Yahweh has declared you this day to be a people for his own possession, as he has promised you, and that you should keep all his commandments; (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 9:21 And the princes said unto them, Let them live; but let them be hewers of wood and drawers of water unto all the congregation; as the princes had promised them. (Root in KJV WBS NIV)
Joshua 23:14 He said, "Why does my lord pursue after his servant? For what have I done? Or what evil is in my hand? (See RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 7:21 For your word's sake, and according to your own heart, you have worked all this greatness, to make your servant know it. (See RSV)
2 Samuel 7:25 Now, Yahweh God, the word that you have spoken concerning your servant, and concerning his house, confirm it forever, and do as you have spoken. (See NIV)
2 Samuel 22:31 As for God, his way is perfect. The word of Yahweh is tested. He is a shield to all those who take refuge in him. (See RSV)
1 Kings 2:4 That Yahweh may establish his word which he spoke concerning me, saying,'If your children take heed to their way, to walk before me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, there shall not fail you,' he said,'a man on the throne of Israel.' (See NAS NIV)
1 Kings 6:12 "Concerning this house which you are building, if you will walk in my statutes, and execute my ordinances, and keep all my commandments to walk in them; then will I establish my word with you, which I spoke to David your father. (See NIV)
1 Kings 8:20 Yahweh has established his word that he spoke; for I have risen up in the place of David my father, and I sit on the throne of Israel, as Yahweh promised, and have built the house for the name of Yahweh, the God of Israel. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 8:24 who have kept with your servant David my father that which you promised him. Yes, you spoke with your mouth, and have fulfilled it with your hand, as it is this day. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS NIV)
1 Kings 8:25 Now therefore, may Yahweh, the God of Israel, keep with your servant David my father that which you have promised him, saying,'There shall not fail you a man in my sight to sit on the throne of Israel, if only your children take heed to their way, to walk before me as you have walked before me.' (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 8:56 "Blessed be Yahweh, who has given rest to his people Israel, according to all that he promised. There has not failed one word of all his good promise, which he promised by Moses his servant. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 15:12 This was the word of Yahweh which he spoke to Jehu, saying, "Your sons to the fourth generation shall sit on the throne of Israel." So it came to pass. (See RSV)
1 Chronicles 16:16 the covenant which he made with Abraham, his oath to Isaac. (See RSV)
1 Chronicles 25:5 All these were the sons of Heman the king's seer in the words of God, to lift up the horn. God gave to Heman fourteen sons and three daughters. (See RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 1:9 Now, Yahweh God, let your promise to David my father be established; for you have made me king over a people like the dust of the earth in multitude. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 6:10 Yahweh has performed his word that he spoke; for I am risen up in the room of David my father, and sit on the throne of Israel, as Yahweh promised, and have built the house for the name of Yahweh, the God of Israel. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 6:15 who have kept with your servant David my father that which you promised him: yes, you spoke with your mouth, and have fulfilled it with your hand, as it is this day. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS NIV)
Nehemiah 5:12 Then said they, We will restore them, and will require nothing of them; so will we do, even as you say. Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they would do according to this promise(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 5:13 Also I shook out my lap, and said, So God shake out every man from his house, and from his labor, that doesn't perform this promise; even thus be he shaken out, and emptied. All the assembly said, Amen, and praised Yahweh. The people did according to this promise. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 9:8 and found his heart faithful before you, and made a covenant with him to give the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite, and the Girgashite, to give it to his seed, and have performed your words; for you are righteous. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 18:30 As for God, his way is perfect. The word of Yahweh is tried. He is a shield to all those who take refuge in him. (See RSV)
Psalms 77:8 Has his loving kindness vanished forever? Does his promise fail for generations?(WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 105:9 the covenant which he made with Abraham, his oath to Isaac, (See RSV)
Psalms 105:42 For he remembered his holy promise, and Abraham his servant. (KJV WBS RSV NIV)
Psalms 106:24 Yes, they despised the pleasant land. They didn't believe his word, (See RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:38 Fulfill your promise to your servant, that you may be feared. (WEB RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:41 Let your loving kindness also come to me, Yahweh, your salvation, according to your word. (See RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:50 This is my comfort in my affliction, for your word has revived me. (See RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:57 Yahweh is my portion. I promised to obey your words. (Root in WEB NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:58 I sought your favor with my whole heart. Be merciful to me according to your word.(See RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:76 Let, I pray thee, thy lovingkindness be for my comfort, According to thy word unto thy servant. (See JPS RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:82 My eyes fail for your word. I say, "When will you comfort me?" (See RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:116 Be my support as you have said, and give me life; let not my hope be turned to shame. (See RSV NIV)
Psalms 119:123 My eyes are wasted with desire for your salvation, and for the word of your righteousness. (See RSV NIV)
Promise (112 Occurrences)
... The word promise is used to denote the mere engagement of a person, without regard
to the consideration for it, or the corresponding duty of the party to whom ... - 42k
Fulfilment (25 Occurrences)
... creation of all things." (WEY). Luke 1:37 For no promise from God will
be impossible of fulfilment." (WEY). Luke 1:45 And blessed ... - 13k
Offspring (186 Occurrences)
... years. (WBS). Acts 13:23 Of this man's offspring hath God, according to his
promise, raised up to Israel a Savior, Jesus: (WBS). Acts ... - 36k
Vow (49 Occurrences)
... 1. (n.) A solemn promise made to God, or to some deity; an act by which one consecrates
or devotes himself, absolutely or conditionally, wholly or in part, for ... - 27k
Descendants (326 Occurrences)
... Acts 13:23 "It is from among David's descendants that God, in fulfilment of His
promise, has raised up a Saviour for Israel, even Jesus. (WEY NAS NIV). ... - 35k
Sarai (13 Occurrences)
... far past middle life, even on a patriarchal scale of longevity, and there appeared
no hope of her ever bearing that child who should inherit the promise of God ... - 20k
Tongues (67 Occurrences)
... Tongues, Gift of. Granted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:4), in fulfilment
of a promise Christ had made to his disciples (Mark 16:17). ... - 61k
Posterity (38 Occurrences)
... For He is destroyed from among men." (WEY). Acts 13:23 From this man's seed, God
has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise, (See RSV). ... - 17k
... this as the act of a properly ordained priest, by which, in the sacrament of Penance,
he frees from sin one who has confessed and made promise of satisfaction. ... - 8k
Shall (64703 Occurrences)
... shall indicates a duty or necessity whose obligation is derived from the person
speaking; as, you shall go; he shall go; that is, I order or promise your going ... - 7k

1861. epaggellomai -- to proclaim, to promise
... to proclaim, to promise. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: epaggellomai Phonetic
Spelling: (ep-ang-el'-lo) Short Definition: I promise, profess Definition ...
// - 7k
1860. epaggelia -- a summons, a promise
... a summons, a promise. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: epaggelia
Phonetic Spelling: (ep-ang-el-ee'-ah) Short Definition: a promise Definition: a ...
// - 7k
1862. epaggelma -- a promise
... a promise. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: epaggelma Phonetic Spelling:
(ep-ang'-el-mah) Short Definition: a promise Definition: a promise...
// - 7k
4279. proepaggello -- to announce before
... before. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: proepaggello Phonetic Spelling:
(pro-ep-ang-ghel'-lom-ahee) Short Definition: I promise beforehand Definition: I ...
// - 7k
4293. prokataggello -- to announce beforehand
... Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: prokataggello Phonetic Spelling:
(prok-at-ang-ghel'-lo) Short Definition: I announce beforehand, promise Definition: ...
// - 7k
1843. exomologeo -- to agree, confess
... confess, profess, promise. From ek and homologeo; to acknowledge or (by implication,
of assent) agree fully -- confess, profess, promise. see GREEK ek. ...
// - 8k
3670. homologeo -- to speak the same, to agree
... Transliteration: homologeo Phonetic Spelling: (hom-ol-og-eh'-o) Short Definition:
I confess, profess, acknowledge, praise Definition: (a) I promise, agree, (b ...
// - 8k
4972. sphragizo -- to seal
... owner. "Sealing" in the ancient world served as a "legal signature" which
guaranteed the promise (contents) of what was sealed. ...
// - 8k
5287. hupostasis -- a support, substance, steadiness, hence ...
... 5287 (from 5259 , "under" and 2476 , "to stand") -- properly, (to possess) a guaranteed
agreement ("title-deed"); (figuratively) "" to a promise or property ...
// - 8k
564. aperitmetos -- uncircumcised
... [564 () literally refers to an uncircumcised foreskin, which stands for "being
of God's covenant" -- ie without the promise of His salvation.]. ...
// - 7k
562. omer -- promise, speech, thing, word
... << 561, 562. omer. 563 >>. promise, speech, thing, word. Transliteration: omer Phonetic
Spelling: (o'-mer) Short Definition: promise... promise, speech, thing, word ...
// - 5k
2421. chayah -- to live
... yaw') Short Definition: leave. keep leave, make alive, certainly, give promise
life, let, suffer to live, nourish up A primitive root ...
// - 6k
8569. tenuah -- opposition
... breach of promise, occasion. From nuw'; alienation; by implication, enmity -- breach
of promise, occasion. see HEBREW nuw'. << 8568, 8569. tenuah. 8570 >>. ...
// - 6k
1697. dabar -- speech, word
... nothing* (21), oath (1), obligations (1), one of the promises (1), order (1), parts
(1), pertains (2), plan (2), plot (2), portion (3), promise (8), proposal (3 ...
// - 8k
561. emer -- speech, word
... Word Origin from amar Definition speech, word NASB Word Usage arguments (1),
chastisement (1), command (1), decreed (1), promise (1), sayings (4), slander* ( ...
// - 6k
5088. neder -- a vow
... vowed. Or neder {nay'-der}; from nadar; a promise (to God); also (concretely)
a thing promised -- vow((-ed)). see HEBREW nadar. << 5087, 5088. ...
// - 6k
5087. nadar -- to vow
... make a vow. A primitive root; to promise (pos., to do or give something to God) --
(make a) vow. << 5086, 5087. nadar. 5088 >>. Strong's Numbers.
// - 6k
559. amar -- to utter, say
... the, give) command(-ment), commune, consider, declare, demand, X desire, determine,
X expressly, X indeed, X intend, name, X plainly, promise, publish, report ...
// - 7k
1696. dabar -- to speak
... to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue -- answer, appoint, bid, command,
commune, declare, destroy, give, name, promise, pronounce, rehearse, say ...
// - 6k

The Promise.
... THE CHOSEN PEOPLE. LESSON I. THE PROMISE. "The creature was made subject
unto vanity, not willingly, but by reason of Him who hath ...
// chosen people/lesson i the promise.htm
The Promise to the Patriarchs.
... THE PROMISE TO THE PATRIARCHS. A great epoch is, in Genesis, ushered in
with the history of the time of the Patriarchs. Luther says ...
/.../hengstenberg/christology of the old testament/the promise to the patriarchs.htm
The Land of Promise
... HYMNS THE LAND OF PROMISE. "All the Land which thou seest, to thee will I give
it.""Genesis 13:15. Gertrude of Hellfde, 1330. tr., Emma Frances Bevan, 1899. ...
/.../bevan/hymns of ter steegen and others second series/the land of promise.htm
Whether a Betrothal is a Promise of Future Marriage?
promise of future marriage? ... Therefore it is wrongly described as a promise...
// theologica/whether a betrothal is a.htm
At what Time the Promise of God was Fulfilled Concerning the Land ...
... Book XVII. Chapter 2."At What Time the Promise of God Was Fulfilled Concerning
the Land of Canaan, Which Even Carnal Israel Got in Possession. ...
// of god/chapter 2 at what time the.htm
Trusting in the Promise. PM
... 373 Trusting in the Promise. PM. The Promise Secure. I have found repose
for my weary soul, Trusting in the promise of the Savior ...
/.../lorenz/the otterbein hymnal/373 trusting in the promise.htm
The Covenant Promise of the Spirit
... The Covenant Promise of the Spirit. A Sermon (No.2200). ... "I will put my spirit within
you" is a promise which drops with graces as the honeycomb with honey. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 37 1891/the covenant promise of the.htm
The Promise of the Father.
disciples of Jesus waited in Jerusalem for the gift of the ...
/.../lathbury/childs story of the bible/chapter xlviii the promise of.htm
Service by Promise (Q )
vows, whereby something is promised to God. Under this head ...
// theologica/service by promise q.htm
Moreover, the Promise of the Gospel is that Whosoever Believes in ...
... Second Head of Doctrine Article 5 Moreover, the promise of the gospel
is that whosoever believes in Christ crucified shall not¦ ...
/.../various/the canons of dordt/article 5 moreover the promise.htm

Thursday, June 7, 2012

John 1:1

New International Version (©1984)
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.New Living Translation (©2007)
In the beginning the Word already existed. The Word was with God, and the Word was God.
English Standard Version (©2001)
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
New American Standard Bible (©1995)
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
International Standard Version (©2008)
In the beginning, the Word existed. The Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English (©2010)
In the origin The Word had been existing and That Word had been existing with God and That Word was himself God.
GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
In the beginning the Word already existed. The Word was with God, and the Word was God.
King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
American King James Version
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
American Standard Version
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Douay-Rheims Bible
IN the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Darby Bible Translation
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
English Revised Version
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Webster's Bible Translation
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Weymouth New Testament
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
World English Bible
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Young's Literal Translation
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God;
Barnes' Notes on the BibleIn the beginning - This expression is used also in Genesis 1:1. John evidently has allusion here to that place, and he means to apply to "the Word" an expression which is there applied "to God." In both places it clearly means before creation, before the world was made, when as yet there was nothing. The meaning is: that the "Word" had an existence before the world was created. This is not spoken of the man Jesus, but of that which "became" a man, or was incarnate, John 1:14. The Hebrews, by expressions like this, commonly denoted eternity. Thus. the eternity of God is described Psalm 90:2; "Before the mountains were brought forth, etc.;" and eternity is commonly expressed by the phrase, before the foundation of the world." Whatever is meant by the term "Word," it is clear that it had an existence before "creation." It is not, then, a "creature" or created being, and must be, therefore, uncreated and eternal. There is only one Being that is uncreated, and Jesus must be therefore divine. Compare the Saviour's own declarations respecting himself in the following places: John 8:58John 17:5John 6:62John 3:13John 6:46John 8:14John 16:28.
Was the Word - Greek, "was the λόγος Logos." This name is given to him who afterward became "flesh," or was incarnate (John 1:14 - that is, to the Messiah. Whatever is meant by it, therefore, is applicable to the Lord Jesus Christ. There have been many opinions about the reason why this name was given to the Son of God. It is unnecessary to repeat those opinions. The opinion which seems most plausible may be expressed as follows:
1. A "word" is that by which we communicate our will; by which we convey our thoughts; or by which we issue commands the medium of communication with others.
2. The Son of God may be called "the Word," because he is the medium by which God promulgates His will and issues His commandments. See Hebrews 1:1-3.
3. This term was in use before the time of John.
(a) It was used in the Aramaic translation of the Old Testament, as, "e. g.," Isaiah 45:12; "I have made the earth, and created man upon it." In the Aramaic it is, "I, 'by my word,' have made," etc. Isaiah 48:13; "mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth." In the Aramaic, "'By my word' I have founded the earth." And so in many other places.
(b) This term was used by the Jews as applicable to the Messiah. In their writings he was commonly known by the term "Mimra" - that is, "Word;" and no small part of the interpositions of God in defense of the Jewish nation were declared to be by "the Word of God." Thus, in their Targum on Deuteronomy 26:17-18, it is said, "Ye have appointed the word of God a king over you this day, that he may be your God."
(c) The term was used by the Jews who were scattered among the Gentiles, and especially those who were conversant with the Greek philosophy.
(d) The term was used by the followers of Plato among the Greeks, to denote the Second Person of the Trinity. The Greek term νοῦς nous or "mind," was commonly given to this second person, but it was said that this nous was "the word" or "reason" of the First Person of the Trinity. The term was therefore extensively in use among the Jews and Gentiles before John wrote his Gospel, and it was certain that it would be applied to the Second Person of the Trinity by Christians. whether converted from Judaism or Paganism. It was important, therefore, that the meaning of the term should be settled by an inspired man, and accordingly John, in the commencement of his Gospel, is at much pains to state clearly what is the true doctrine respecting the λόγος Logos, or Word. It is possible, also, that the doctrines of the Gnostics had begun to spread in the time of John. They were an Oriental sect, and held that the λόγος Logos or "Word" was one of the "Aeones" that had been created, and that this one had been united to the man Jesus. If that doctrine had begun then to prevail, it was of the more importance for John to settle the truth in regard to the rank of the Logos or Word. This he has done in such a way that there need be no doubt about its meaning.
Was with God - This expression denotes friendship or intimacy. Compare Mark 9:19. John affirms that he was "with God" in the beginning - that is, before the world was made. It implies, therefore, that he was partaker of the divine glory; that he was blessed and happy with God. It proves that he was intimately united with the Father, so as to partake of his glory and to be appropriately called by the name God. He has himself explained it. See John 17:5; "And now, O Father, glorify thou we with thine own self, with the glory which I had with thee before the world was." See also John 1:18; "No man hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him." See also John 3:13; "The Son of man, which is in heaven." Compare Philippians 2:6-7.
Was God - In the previous phrase John had said that the Word was "with God." Lest it should be supposed that he was a different and inferior being, here John states that "he was God." There is no more unequivocal declaration in the Bible than this, and there could be no stronger proof that the sacred writer meant to affirm that the Son of God was equal with the Father; because:
1. There is no doubt that by the λόγος Logos is meant Jesus Christ.
2. This is not an "attribute" or quality of God, but is a real subsistence, for it is said that the λόγος Logos was made flesh σάρξ sarx - that is, became a human being.
3. There is no variation here in the manuscripts, and critics have observed that the Greek will bear no other construction than what is expressed in our translation - that the Word "was God."

Clarke's Commentary on the BibleIn the beginning - That is, before any thing was formed - ere God began the great work of creation. This is the meaning of the word in Genesis 1:1, to which the evangelist evidently alludes. This phrase fully proves, in the mouth of an inspired writer, that Jesus Christ was no part of the creation, as he existed when no part of that existed; and that consequently he is no creature, as all created nature was formed by him: for without him was nothing made that is made, John 1:3. Now, as what was before creation must be eternal, and as what gave being to all things, could not have borrowed or derived its being from any thing, therefore Jesus, who was before all things and who made all things, must necessarily be the Eternal God.
Was the Word - Or, existed the Logos. This term should be left untranslated, for the very same reason why the names Jesus and Christ are left untranslated. The first I consider as proper an apellative of the Savior of the world as I do either of the two last. And as it would be highly improper to say, the Deliverer, the Anointed, instead of Jesus Christ, so I deem it improper to say, the Word, instead of the Logos. But as every appellative of the Savior of the world was descriptive of some excellence in his person, nature, or work, so the epithet Λογος, Logos, which signifies a word spoken, speech, eloquence, doctrine, reason, or the faculty of reasoning, is very properly applied to him, who is the true light which lighteth every man who cometh into the world, John 1:9; who is the fountain of all wisdom; who giveth being, life, light, knowledge, and reason, to all men; who is the grand Source of revelation, who has declared God unto mankind; who spake by the prophets, for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy,Revelation 19:10; who has illustrated life and immortality by his Gospel, 2 Timothy 1:10; and who has fully made manifest the deep mysteries which lay hidden in the bosom of the invisible God from all eternity, John 1:18.
The apostle does not borrow this mode of speech from the writings of Plato, as some have imagined: he took it from the Scriptures of the Old Testament, and from the subsequent style of the ancient Jews. It is true the Platonists make mention of the Logos in this way: - καθ' ὁν, αει οντα, τα γενομενα εγενετο - by whom, eternally existing, all things were made. But as Plato, Pythagoras, Zeno, and others, traveled among the Jews, and conversed with them, it is reasonable to suppose that they borrowed this, with many others of their most important notions and doctrines, from them.
And the Word was God - Or, God was the Logos: therefore no subordinate being, no second to the Most High, but the supreme eternal Jehovah.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire BibleIn the beginning was the word,.... That this is said not of the written word, but of the essential word of God, the Lord Jesus Christ, is clear, from all that is said from hence, to John 1:14 as that this word was in the beginning, was with God, and is God; from the creation of all things being ascribed to him, and his being said to be the life and light of men; from his coming into the world, and usage in it; from his bestowing the privilege of adoption on believers; and from his incarnation; and also there is a particular application of all this to Christ, John 1:15. And likewise from what this evangelist elsewhere says of him, when he calls him the word of life, and places him between the Father and the Holy Ghost; and speaks of the record of the word of God, and the testimony of Jesus, as the same thing; and represents him as a warrior and conqueror, 1 John 1:1. Moreover this appears to be spoken of Christ, from what other inspired writers have said of him, under the same character; as the Evangelist Luke, Luke 1:2, the Apostle Paul, Acts 20:32 and the Apostle Peter, 2 Peter 3:5. And who is called the word, not as man; for as man he was not in the beginning with God, but became so in the fulness of time; nor is the man God; besides, as such, he is a creature, and not the Creator, nor is he the life and light of men; moreover, he was the word, before he was man, and therefore not as such: nor can any part of the human nature be so called; not the flesh, for the word was made flesh; nor his human soul, for self-subsistence, deity, eternity, and the creation of all things, can never be ascribed to that; but he is the word as the Son of God, as is evident from what is here attributed to him, and from the word being said to be so, as in John 1:14 and from those places, where the word is explained by the Son, compare 1 John 5:5. And is so called from his nature, being begotten of the Father; for as the word, whether silent or expressed, is the birth of the mind, the image of it, equal to it, and distinct from it; so Christ is the only begotten of the Father, the express image of his person, in all things equal to him, and a distinct person from him: and he may be so called, from some action, or actions, said of him, or ascribed to him; as that he spoke for, and on the behalf of the elect of God, in the eternal council and covenant of grace and peace; and spoke all things out of nothing, in creation; for with regard to those words so often mentioned in the history of the creation, and God said, may Jehovah the Son be called the word; also he was spoken of as the promised Messiah, throughout the whole Old Testament dispensation; and is the interpreter of his Father's mind, as he was in Eden's garden, as well as in the days of his flesh; and now speaks in heaven for the saints. The phrase, , "the word of the Lord", so frequently used by the Targumists, is well known: and it is to be observed, that the same things which John here says of the word, they say likewise, as will be observed on the several clauses; from whence it is more likely, that John should take this phrase, since the paraphrases of Onkelos and Jonathan ben Uzziel were written before his time, than that he should borrow it from the writings of Plato, or his followers, as some have thought; with whose philosophy, Ebion and Cerinthus are said to be acquainted; wherefore John, the more easily to gain upon them, uses this phrase, when that of the Son of God would have been disagreeable to them: that there is some likeness between the Evangelist John and Plato in their sentiments concerning the word, will not be denied. Amelius (f), a Platonic philosopher, who lived after the times of John, manifestly refers to these words of his, in agreement with his master's doctrine: his words are these,
"and this was truly "Logos", or the word, by whom always existing, the things that are made, were made, as also Heraclitus thought; and who, likewise that Barbarian (meaning the Evangelist John) reckons was in the order and dignity of the beginning, constituted with God, and was God, by whom all things are entirely made; in whom, whatsoever is made, lives, and has life, and being; and who entered into bodies, and was clothed with flesh, and appeared a man; so notwithstanding, that he showed forth the majesty of his nature; and after his dissolution, he was again deified, and was God, as he was before he descended into a body, flesh and man.
In which words it is easy to observe plain traces of what the evangelist says in the first four verses, and in the fourteenth verse of this chapter; yet it is much more probable, that Plato had his notion of the Logos, or word, out of the writings of the Old Testament, than that John should take this phrase, or what he says concerning the word, from him; since it is a matter of fact not disputed, that Plato went into Egypt to get knowledge: not only Clemens Alexandrinus a Christian writer says, that he was a philosopher of the Hebrews (g), and understood prophecy (h), and stirred up the fire of the Hebrew philosophy (i); but it is affirmed by Heathen writers, that he went into Egypt to learn of the priests (k), and to understand the rites of the prophets (l); and Aristobulus, a Jew, affirms (m), he studied their law; and Numenius, a Pythagoric philosopher (n), charges him with stealing what he wrote, concerning God and the world, out of the books of Moses; and used to say to him, what is Plato, but Moses "Atticising?" or Moses speaking Greek: and Eusebius (o), an ancient Christian writer, points at the very places, from whence Plato took his hints: wherefore it is more probable, that the evangelist received this phrase of the word, as a divine person, from the Targums, where there is such frequent mention made of it; or however, there is a very great agreement between what he and these ancient writings of the Jews say of the word, as will be hereafter shown. Moreover, the phrase is frequently used in like manner, in the writings of Philo the Jew; from whence it is manifest, that the name was well known to the Jews, and may be the reason of the evangelist's using it. This word, he says, was in the beginning; by which is meant, not the Father of Christ; for he is never called the beginning, but the Son only; and was he, he must be such a beginning as is without one; nor can he be said to be so, with respect to the Son or Spirit, who are as eternal as himself; only with respect to the creatures, of whom he is the author and efficient cause: Christ is indeed in the Father, and the Father in him, but this cannot be meant here; nor is the beginning of the Gospel of Christ, by the preaching of John the Baptist, intended here: John's ministry was an evangelical one, and the Gospel was more clearly preached by him, and after him, by Christ and his apostles, than before; but it did not then begin; it was preached before by the angel to the shepherds, at the birth of Christ; and before that, by the prophets under the former dispensation, as by Isaiah, and others; it was preached before unto Abraham, and to our first parents, in the garden of Eden: nor did Christ begin to be, when John began to preach; for John's preaching and baptism were for the manifestation of him: yea, Christ existed as man, before John began to preach; and though he was born after him as man, yet as the Word and Son of God, he existed before John was born; he was in being in the times of the prophets, which were before John; and in the times of Moses, and before Abraham, and in the days of Noah: but by the beginning is here meant, the beginning of the world, or the creation of all things; and which is expressive of the eternity of Christ, he was in the beginning, as the Maker of all creatures, and therefore must be before them all: and it is to be observed, that it is said of him, that in the beginning he was; not made, as the heavens and earth, and the things in them were; nor was he merely in the purpose and predestination of God, but really existed as a divine person, as he did from all eternity; as appears from his being set up in office from everlasting; from all the elect being chosen in him, and given to him before the foundation of the world; from the covenant of grace, which is from eternity, being made with him; and from the blessings and promises of grace, being as early put into his hands; and from his nature as God, and his relation to his Father: so Philo the Jew often calls the Logos, or word, the eternal word, the most ancient word, and more ancient than any thing that is made (p). The eternity of the Messiah is acknowledged by the ancient Jews: Micah 5:2 is a full proof of it; which by them (q) is thus paraphrased,
"out of thee, before me, shall come forth the Messiah, that he may exercise dominion over Israel; whose name is said from eternity, from the days of old.
Jarchi upon it only mentions Psalm 72:17 which is rendered by the Targum on the place, before the sun his name was prepared; it may be translated, "before the sun his name was Yinnon"; that is, the Son, namely the Son of God; and Aben Ezra interprets it, , "he shall be called the son"; and to this agrees what the Talmudisis say (r), that the name of the Messiah was before the world was created; in proof of which they produce the same passage,
And the word was with God; not with men or angels; for he was before either of these; but with God, not essentially, but personally considered; with God his Father: not in the Socinian sense, that he was only known to him, and to no other before the ministry of John the Baptist; for he was known and spoken of by the angel Gabriel before; and was known to Mary and to Joseph; and to Zacharias and Elisabeth; to the shepherds, and to the wise men; to Simeon and Anna, who saw him in the temple; and to the prophets and patriarchs in all ages, from the beginning of the world: but this phrase denotes the existence of the word with the Father, his relation and nearness to him, his equality with him, and particularly the distinction of his person from him, as well as his eternal being with him; for he was always with him, and is, and ever will be; he was with him in the council and covenant of grace, and in the creation of the universe, and is with him in the providential government of the world; he was with him as the word and Son of God in heaven, whilst he as man, was here on earth; and he is now with him, and ever will be: and as John here speaks of the word, as a distinct person from God the Father, so do the Targums, or Chaldee paraphrases; Psalm 110:1 "the Lord said to my Lord", is rendered, "the Lord said to his word"; where he is manifestly distinguished from Jehovah, that speaks to him; and in Hosea 1:7 the Lord promises to "have mercy on the house of Judah", and "save them by the Lord their God". The Targum is, "I will redeem them by the word of the Lord their God"; where the word of the Lord, who is spoken of as a Redeemer and Saviour, is distinguished from the Lord, who promises to save by him. This distinction of Jehovah and his word, may be observed in multitudes of places, in the Chaldee paraphrases, and in the writings of Philo the Jew; and this phrase, of "the word" being "with God", is in the Targums expressed by, , "the word from before the Lord", or "which is before the Lord": being always in his presence, and the angel of it; so Onkelos paraphrases Genesis 31:22 "and the word from before the Lord, came to Laban", &c. and Exodus 20:19 thus, "and let not the word from before the Lord speak with us, lest we die"; for so it is read in the King of Spain's Bible; and wisdom, which is the same with the word of God, is said to be by him, or with him, in Proverbs 8:1 agreeably to which John here speaks. John makes use of the word God, rather than Father, because the word is commonly called the word of God, and because of what follows,
and the word was God; not made a God, as he is said here after to be made flesh; nor constituted or appointed a God, or a God by office; but truly and properly God, in the highest sense of the word, as appears from the names by which he is called; as Jehovah, God, our, your, their, and my God, God with us, the mighty God, God over all, the great God, the living God, the true God, and eternal life; and from his perfections, and the whole fulness of the Godhead that dwells in him, as independence, eternity, immutability, omnipresence, omniscience, and omnipotence; and from his works of creation and providence, his miracles, the work of redemption, his forgiving sins, the resurrection of himself and others from the dead, and the administration of the last judgment; and from the worship given him, as prayer to him, faith in him, and the performance of baptism in his name: nor is it any objection to the proper deity of Christ, that the article is here wanting; since when the word is applied to the Father, it is not always used, and even in this chapter, John 1:6 and which shows, that the word "God", is not the subject, but the predicate of this proposition, as we render it: so the Jews often use the word of the Lord for Jehovah, and call him God. Thus the words in Genesis 28:20 are paraphrased by Onkelos,
"if "the word of the Lord" will be my help, and will keep me, &c. then "the word of the Lord" shall be, , "my God":
again, Leviticus 26:12 is paraphrased, by the Targum ascribed to Jonathan Ben Uzziel, thus,
"I will cause the glory of my Shekinah to dwell among you, and my word shall "be your God", the Redeemer;
once more, Deuteronomy 26:17 is rendered by the Jerusalem Targum after this manner,
"ye have made "the word of the Lord" king over you this day, that he may be your God:
and this is frequent with Philo the Jew, who says, the name of God is his word, and calls him, my Lord, the divine word; and affirms, that the most ancient word is God (s),
(f) Apud Euseb. Prepar. Evangel. l. 11. c. 19. (g) Stromat. l. 1. p. 274. (h) Ib. p. 303. (i) Ib. Paedagog. l. 2. c. 1. p. 150. (k) Valer. Maxim. l. 8. c. 7. (l) Apuleius de dogmate Platonis, l. 1. in principio. (m) Apud. Euseb. Prepar. Evangel. l. 13. c. 12. (n) Hesych. Miles. de Philosophis. p. 50. (o) Prepar. Evangel. l. 11. c. 9. (p) De Leg. Alleg. l. 2. p. 93. de Plant. Noe, p. 217. de Migrat. Abraham, p. 389. de Profugis, p. 466. quis. rer. divin. Haeres. p. 509. (q) Targum Jon. in loc. (r) T. Bab. Pesachim, fol. 54. 1. & Nedarim, fol. 39. 2. Pirke Eliezer, c. 3.((s) De Allegor. l. 2. p. 99, 101. & de Somniis, p. 599.

Vincent's Word StudiesIn the beginning was (ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν)
With evident allusion to the first word of Genesis. But John elevates the phrase from its reference to a point of time, the beginning of creation, to the time of absolute pre-existence before any creation, which is not mentioned untilJohn 1:3. This beginning had no beginning (compare John 1:3John 17:51 John 1:1Ephesians 1:4Proverbs 8:23Psalm 90:2). This heightening of the conception, however, appears not so much in ἀρχή, beginning, which simply leaves room for it, as in the use of ἦν, was, denoting absolute existence (compare εἰμί, I am, John 8:58) instead of ἐγένετο, came into being, or began to be, which is used in John 1:3John 1:14, of the coming into being of creation and of the Word becoming flesh. Note also the contrast between ἀρχή, in the beginning, and the expression ἀπ' ἀρχῆς, from the beginning, which is common in John's writings (John 8:441 John 2:71 John 2:24;1 John 3:8) and which leaves no room for the idea of eternal pre-existence. "In Genesis 1:1, the sacred historian starts from the beginning and comes downward, thus keeping us in the course of time. Here he starts from the same point, but goes upward, thus taking us into the eternity preceding time" (Milligan and Moulton). See onColossians 1:15. This notion of "beginning" is still further heightened by the subsequent statement of the relation of the Logos to the eternal God. The ἀρχή must refer to the creation - the primal beginning of things; but if, in this beginning, the Logos already was, then he belonged to the order of eternity. "The Logos was not merely existent, however, in the beginning, but was also the efficient principle, the beginning of the beginning. The ἀρχή (beginning), in itself and in its operation dark, chaotic, was, in its idea and its principle, comprised in one single luminous word, which was the Logos. And when it is said the Logos was in this beginning, His eternal existence is already expressed, and His eternal position in the Godhead already indicated thereby" (Lange). "Eight times in the narrative of creation (in Genesis) there occur, like the refrain of a hymn, the words, And God said. John gathers up all those sayings of God into a single saying, living and endowed with activity and intelligence, from which all divine orders emanate: he finds as the basis of all spoken words, the speaking Word" (Godet).
The Word (ὁ λόγος)
Logos. This expression is the keynote and theme of the entire gospel. Λόγος is from the root λεγ, appearing in λέγω, the primitive meaning of which is to lay: then, to pick out, gather, pick up: hence to gather or put words together, and so, to speak. Hence λόγος is, first of all, a collecting or collection both of things in the mind, and of words by which they are expressed. It therefore signifies both the outward form by which the inward thought is expressed, and the inward thought itself, the Latin oratio and ratio: compare the Italian ragionare, "to think" and "to speak."
As signifying the outward form it is never used in the merely grammatical sense, as simply the name of a thing or act (ἔπος, ὄνομα, ῥῆμα), but means a word as the thing referred to: the material, not the formal part: a word as embodying a conception or idea. See, for instance, Matthew 22:461 Corinthians 14:91 Corinthians 14:19. Hence it signifies a saying, of God, or of man (Matthew 19:21Matthew 19:22Mark 5:35Mark 5:36): a decree, a precept (Romans 9:28Mark 7:13). The ten commandments are called in the Septuagint, οἱ δέκα λόγοι, "the ten words" (Exodus 34:28), and hence the familiar term decalogue. It is further used of discourse: either of the act of speaking (Acts 14:12), of skill and practice in speaking (Acts 18:152 Timothy 4:15), specifically the doctrine of salvation through Christ (Matthew 13:20-23Philippians 1:14); of narrative, both the relation and the thing related (Acts 1:1;John 21:23Mark 1:45); of matter under discussion, an affair, a case in law (Acts 15:6Acts 19:38).
As signifying the inward thought, it denotes the faculty of thinking and reasoning (Hebrews 4:12); regard or consideration (Acts 20:24); reckoning, account (Philippians 4:15Philippians 4:17Hebrews 4:13); cause or reason (Acts 10:29).
John uses the word in a peculiar sense, here, and in John 1:14; and, in this sense, in these two passages only. The nearest approach to it is in Revelation 19:13, where the conqueror is called the Word of God; and it is recalled in the phrases Word of Life, and the Life was manifested (1 John 1:11 John 1:2). Compare Hebrews 4:12. It was a familiar and current theological term when John wrote, and therefore he uses it without explanation.
Old Testament Usage of the Term
The word here points directly to Genesis 1, where the act of creation is effected by God speaking (compare Psalm 33:6). The idea of God, who is in his own nature hidden, revealing himself in creation, is the root of the Logos-idea, in contrast with all materialistic or pantheistic conceptions of creation. This idea develops itself in the Old Testament on three lines. (1) The Word, as embodying the divine will, is personified in Hebrew poetry. Consequently divine attributes are predicated of it as being the continuous revelation of God in law and prophecy (Psalm 3:4Isaiah 40:8Psalm 119:105). The Word is a healer in Psalm 107:20; a messenger in Psalm 147:15; the agent of the divine decrees in Isaiah 55:11.
(2) The personified wisdom (Job 28:12 sq.; Proverbs 8, 9). Here also is the idea of the revelation of that which is hidden. For wisdom is concealed from man: "he knoweth not the price thereof, neither is it found in the land of the living. The depth saith, It is not in me; and the sea saith, It is not with me. It cannot be gotten for gold, neither shall silver be weighed for the price thereof. It is hid from the eyes of all living, and kept close from the fowls of the air" (Job 28). Even Death, which unlocks so many secrets, and the underworld, know it only as a rumor (Job 28:22). It is only God who knows its way and its place (Job 28:23). He made the world, made the winds and the waters, made a decree for the rain and a way for the lightning of the thunder (Job 28:25Job 28:26). He who possessed wisdom in the beginning of his way, before His works of old, before the earth with its depths and springs and mountains, with whom was wisdom as one brought up with Him (Proverbs 8:26-31), declared it. "It became, as it were, objective, so that He beheld it" (Job 28:27) and embodied it in His creative work. This personification, therefore, is based on the thought that wisdom is not shut up at rest in God, but is active and manifest in the world. "She standeth in the top of high places, by the way in the places of the paths. She crieth at the gates, at the entry of the city, at the coming in at the doors" (Proverbs 8:2Proverbs 8:3). She builds a palace and prepares a banquet, and issues a general invitation to the simple and to him that wanteth understanding (Proverbs 9:1-6). It is viewed as the one guide to salvation, comprehending all revelations of God, and as an attribute embracing and combining all His other attributes.
(3) The Angel of Jehovah. The messenger of God who serves as His agent in the world of sense, and is sometimes distinguished from Jehovah and sometimes identical with him (Genesis 16:7-13Genesis 32:24-28Hosea 12:4,Hosea 12:5Exodus 23:20Exodus 23:21Malachi 3:1).
Apocryphal Usage
In the Apocryphal writings this mediative element is more distinctly apprehended, but with a tendency to pantheism. In the Wisdom of Solomon (at least 100 b.c.), where wisdom seems to be viewed as another name for the whole divine nature, while nowhere connected with the Messiah, it is described as a being of light, proceeding essentially from God; a true image of God, co-occupant of the divine throne; a real and independent principle, revealing God in the world and mediating between it and Him, after having created it as his organ - in association with a spirit which is called μονογενές, only begotten (7:22). "She is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty; therefore can no defiled thing fall into her. For she is the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of his goodness" (see chapter 7, throughout). Again: "Wisdom reacheth from one end to another mightily, and sweetly doth she order all things. In that she is conversant with God, she magnifieth her nobility: yea, the Lord of all things Himself loved her. For she is privy to the mysteries of the knowledge of God, and a lover of His works. Moreover, by the means of her I shall obtain immortality, and leave behind me an everlasting memorial to them that come after me" (chapter 9). In 16:12, it is said, "Thy word, O Lord, healeth all things" (compare Psalm 107:20); and in 18:15, 16, "Thine almighty word leaped from heaven out of thy royal throne, as a fierce man of war into the midst of a land of destruction, and brought thine unfeigned commandment as a sharp sword, and, standing up, filled all things with death; and it touched the heaven, but it stood upon the earth." See also Wisdom of Sirach, chapters 1, 24, and Baruch 3, 4:1-4.
Later Jewish Usage

Geneva Study BibleIn {1} the {a} beginning {b} was {c} the Word, and the Word was {d} with God, and the {e} Word was God.
(1) The Son of God is of one and the selfsame eternity or everlastingness, and of one and the selfsame essence or nature with the Father.
(a) From the beginning, as the evangelist says in 1Jo 1:1; it is as though he said that the Word did not begin to have his being when God began to make all that was made: for the Word was even then when all things that were made began to be made, and therefore he was before the beginning of all things.
(b) Had his being.
(c) This word the points out to us a peculiar and choice thing above all others, and puts a difference between this Word, which is the Son of God, and the laws of God, which are also called the word of God.
(d) This word with points out that there is a distinction of persons here.
(e) This word Word is the first in order in the sentence, and is the subject of the sentence, and this word God is the latter in order, and is the predicate of the sentence.

People's New Testament1:1-3 The Beginning of Christ's Ministry
The Word Made Flesh. The Witness of John. John's Disciples Pointed to Christ. The Lord Calls His First Disciples. An Israelite Indeed.
In the beginning was the Word, etc. The first fourteen verses are introductory. In order to set at rest all controversy the Divine nature of Jesus, John glances, in the first three verses, back to the beginning, recorded in Genesis, and affirms: (1) That he who was afterwards manifest as the Christ existed before creation began; (2) that he was present with God; (3) that he was divine; (4) that he was the Word; (5) that by or through him were all things made that were made (Joh 1:3). The first chapter of Genesis helps us to understand its meaning. God said, Let there be light (Ge 1:3), Let there be a firmament (Ge 1:6), Let the earth bring forth (Ge 1:11), etc. and it was done. God exhibits his creative power through the Word, and manifests his will through the Word. There are mysteries belonging to the divine nature and to the relation between the Son and the Father that we have to wait for eternity to solve. They are too deep for human solution, but this is clear: that God creates and speaks to man through the Word. As we clothe our thoughts in words, so God reveals his will by the Word, and when the Word is clothed in flesh, as the Teacher of men, we recognize it as Jesus Christ.

Wesley's Notes1:1 In the beginning - (Referring to Gen 1:1, and Prov 8:23.) When all things began to be made by the Word: in the beginning of heaven and earth, and this whole frame of created beings, the Word existed, without any beginning. He was when all things began to be, whatsoever had a beginning. The Word - So termed Psa 33:6, and frequently by the seventy, and in the Chaldee paraphrase. So that St. John did not borrow this expression from Philo, or any heathen writer. He was not yet named Jesus, or Christ. He is the Word whom the Father begat or spoke from eternity; by whom the Father speaking, maketh all things; who speaketh the Father to us. We have, in John 1:18, both a real description of the Word, and the reason why he is so called. He is the only begotten Son of the Father, who is in the bosom of the Father, and hath declared him. And the Word was with God - Therefore distinct from God the Father. The word rendered with, denotes a perpetual tendency as it were of the Son to the Father, in unity of essence. He was with God alone; because nothing beside God had then any being. And the Word was God - Supreme, eternal, independent. There was no creature, in respect of which he could be styled God in a relative sense. Therefore he is styled so in the absolute sense. The Godhead of the Messiah being clearly revealed in the Old Testament, (Jer 23:7; Hos 1:6; Psa 23:1,) the other evangelists aim at this, to prove that Jesus, a true man, was the Messiah. But when, at length, some from hence began to doubt of his Godhead, then St. John expressly asserted it, and wrote in this book as it were a supplement to the Gospels, as in the Revelation to the prophets.

Scofield Reference NotesSCOFIELD REFERENCE NOTES (Old Scofield 1917 Edition)
Book Introduction
The Gospel According to St. John
WRITER. The fourth Gospel was written by the Apostle John Jn 21:24. This has been questioned on critical grounds, but on the same grounds and with equal scholarship, the early date and Johanean authorship have been maintained.
DATE. The date of John's Gospel falls between A.D. 85 and 90. Probably the latter.
THEME. This is indicated both in the Prologue (1.1-14), and in the last verse of the Gospel proper (20.31), and is: The incarnation of the eternal Word, and Son of life; (2) that as many as believe on Him as "the Christ, the Son of God" (20.31) may have eternal life. The prominent words are, "believed" and "life."
The book is in seven natural divisions:
I. Prologue: The eternal Word incarnate in Jesus the Christ, 1.1-14.
II. The witness of John the Baptist, 1.15-34.
III. The public ministry of Christ, 1.35-12.50.
IV. The private ministry of Christ to His own, 13.1-17.26.
V. The sacrifice of Christ, 18.1-19.42.
VI. The manifestation of Christ in resurrection, 20.1-31.
VII. Epilogue: Christ the Master of life and service, 21.1-25.
The events recorded in this book cover a period of 7 years.
[1] Word
Gr. "Logos" (arm. "Memra," used in the Targums, or Heb. paraphrases, for God). The Greek term means,
(1) a thought or concept;
(2) the expression or utterance of that thought. As a designation of Christ, therefore, Logos is peculiarly felicitous because,

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible CommentaryTHE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO JOHN Commentary by David Brown
The author of the Fourth Gospel was the younger of the two sons of Zebedee, a fisherman on the Sea of Galilee, who resided at Bethsaida, where were born Peter and Andrew his brother, and Philip also. His mother's name was Salome, who, though not without her imperfections (Mt 20:20-28), was one of those dear and honored women who accompanied the Lord on one of His preaching circuits through Galilee, ministering to His bodily wants; who followed Him to the cross, and bought sweet spices to anoint Him after His burial, but, on bringing them to the grave, on the morning of the First Day of the week, found their loving services gloriously superseded by His resurrection ere they arrived. His father, Zebedee, appears to have been in good circumstances, owning a vessel of his own and having hired servants (Mr 1:20). Our Evangelist, whose occupation was that of a fisherman with his father, was beyond doubt a disciple of the Baptist, and one of the two who had the first interview with Jesus. He was called while engaged at his secular occupation (Mt 4:21, 22), and again on a memorable occasion (Lu 5:1-11), and finally chosen as one of the Twelve Apostles (Mt 10:2). He was the youngest of the Twelve-the "Benjamin," as Da Costa calls him-and he and James his brother were named in the native tongue by Him who knew the heart, "Boanerges," which the Evangelist Mark (Mr 3:17) explains to mean "Sons of thunder"; no doubt from their natural vehemence of character. They and Peter constituted that select triumvirate of whom see on [1753]Lu 9:28. But the highest honor bestowed on this disciple was his being admitted to the bosom place with his Lord at the table, as "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (Joh 13:23; 20:2; 21:7, 20:24), and to have committed to him by the dying Redeemer the care of His mother (Joh 19:26, 27). There can be no reasonable doubt that this distinction was due to a sympathy with His own spirit and mind on the part of John which the all-penetrating Eye of their common Master beheld in none of the rest; and although this was probably never seen either in his life or in his ministry by his fellow apostles, it is brought out wonderfully in his writings, which, in Christ-like spirituality, heavenliness, and love, surpass, we may freely say, all the other inspired writings.
After the effusion of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost, we find him in constant but silent company with Peter, the great spokesman and actor in the infant Church until the accession of Paul. While his love to the Lord Jesus drew him spontaneously to the side of His eminent servant, and his chastened vehemence made him ready to stand courageously by him, and suffer with him, in all that his testimony to Jesus might cost him, his modest humility, as the youngest of all the apostles, made him an admiring listener and faithful supporter of his brother apostle rather than a speaker or separate actor. Ecclesiastical history is uniform in testifying that John went to Asia Minor; but it is next to certain that this could not have been till after the death both of Peter and Paul; that he resided at Ephesus, whence, as from a center, he superintended the churches of that region, paying them occasional visits; and that he long survived the other apostles. Whether the mother of Jesus died before this, or went with John to Ephesus, where she died and was buried, is not agreed. One or two anecdotes of his later days have been handed down by tradition, one at least bearing marks of reasonable probability. But it is not necessary to give them here. In the reign of Domitian (A.D. 81-96) he was banished to "the isle that is called Patmos" (a small rocky and then almost uninhabited island in the Ægean Sea), "for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus Christ" (Re 1:9). Irenæus and Eusebius say that this took place about the end of Domitian's reign. That he was thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil, and miraculously delivered, is one of those legends which, though reported by Tertullian and Jerome, is entitled to no credit. His return from exile took place during the brief but tolerant reign of Nerva; he died at Ephesus in the reign of Trajan [Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.23], at an age above ninety, according to some; according to others, one hundred; and even one hundred twenty, according to others still. The intermediate number is generally regarded as probably the nearest to the truth.
As to the date of this Gospel, the arguments for its having been composed before the destruction of Jerusalem (though relied on by some superior critics) are of the slenderest nature; such as the expression in Joh 5:2, "there is at Jerusalem, by the sheep-gate, a pool," &c.; there being no allusion to Peter's martyrdom as having occurred according to the prediction in Joh 21:18-a thing too well known to require mention. That it was composed long after the destruction of Jerusalem, and after the decease of all the other apostles, is next to certain, though the precise time cannot be determined. Probably it was before his banishment, however; and if we date it between the years 90 and 94, we shall probably be close to the truth.
As to the readers for whom it was more immediately designed, that they were Gentiles we might naturally presume from the lateness of the date; but the multitude of explanations of things familiar to every Jew puts this beyond all question.
No doubt was ever thrown upon the genuineness and authenticity of this Gospel till about the close of the eighteenth century; nor were these embodied in any formal attack upon it till Bretschneider, in 1820, issued his famous treatise [Probabilia], the conclusions of which he afterwards was candid enough to admit had been satisfactorily disproved. To advert to these would be as painful as unnecessary; consisting as they mostly do of assertions regarding the Discourses of our Lord recorded in this Gospel which are revolting to every spiritual mind. The Tubingen school did their best, on their peculiar mode of reasoning, to galvanize into fresh life this theory of the post-Joannean date of the Fourth Gospel; and some Unitarian critics still cling to it. But to use the striking language of Van Oosterzee regarding similar speculations on the Third Gospel, "Behold, the feet of them that shall carry it out dead are already at the door" (Ac 5:9). Is there one mind of the least elevation of spiritual discernment that does not see in this Gospel marks of historical truth and a surpassing glory such as none of the other Gospels possess, brightly as they too attest their own verity; and who will not be ready to say that if not historically true, and true just as it stands, it never could have been by mortal man composed or conceived?
Of the peculiarities of this Gospel, we note here only two. The one is its reflective character. While the others are purely narrative, the Fourth Evangelist, "pauses, as it were, at every turn," as Da Costa says [Four Witnesses, p. 234], "at one time to give a reason, at another to fix the attention, to deduce consequences, or make applications, or to give utterance to the language of praise." See Joh 2:20, 21, 23-25; 4:1, 2; 7:37-39; 11:12, 13, 49-52; 21:18, 19, 22, 23. The other peculiarity of this Gospel is its supplementary character. By this, in the present instance, we mean something more than the studiousness with which he omits many most important particulars in our Lord's history, for no conceivable reason but that they were already familiar as household words to all his readers, through the three preceding Gospels, and his substituting in place of these an immense quantity of the richest matter not found in the other Gospels. We refer here more particularly to the nature of the additions which distinguish this Gospel; particularly the notices of the different Passovers which occurred during our Lord's public ministry, and the record of His teaching at Jerusalem, without which it is not too much to say that we could have had but a most imperfect conception either of the duration of His ministry or of the plan of it. But another feature of these additions is quite as noticeable and not less important. "We find," to use again the words of Da Costa [Four Witnesses, pp. 238, 239], slightly abridged, "only six of our Lord's miracles recorded in this Gospel, but these are all of the most remarkable kind, and surpass the rest in depth, specialty of application, and fulness of meaning. Of these six we find only one in the other three Gospels-the multiplication of the loaves. That miracle chiefly, it would seem, on account of the important instructions of which it furnished the occasion (Joh 6:1-71), is here recorded anew. The five other tokens of divine power are distinguished from among the many recorded in the three other Gospels by their furnishing a still higher display of power and command over the ordinary laws and course of nature. Thus we find recorded here the first of all the miracles that Jesus wrought-the changing of water into wine (Joh 2:1-11), the cure of the nobleman's son at a distance (Joh 4:43-54); of the numerous cures of the lame and the paralytic by the word of Jesus, only one-of the man impotent for thirty and eight years (Joh 5:1-9); of the many cures of the blind, one only-of the man born blind (Joh 9:1-12); the restoration of Lazarus, not from a deathbed, like Jairus' daughter, nor from a bier, like the widow of Nain's son, but from the grave, and after lying there four days, and there sinking into corruption (Joh 11:1-44); and lastly, after His resurrection, the miraculous draught of fishes on the Sea of Tiberias (Joh 21:5-11). But these are all recorded chiefly to give occasion for the record of those astonishing discourses and conversations, alike with friends and with foes, with His disciples and with the multitude which they drew forth."
Other illustrations of the peculiarities of this Gospel will occur, and other points connected with it be adverted to, in the course of the Commentary.
Joh 1:1-14. The Word Made Flesh.
1. In the beginning-of all time and created existence, for this Word gave it being (Joh 1:3, 10); therefore, "before the world was" (Joh 17:5, 24); or, from all eternity.
was the Word-He who is to God what man's word is to himself, the manifestation or expression of himself to those without him. (See on [1754]Joh 1:18). On the origin of this most lofty and now for ever consecrated title of Christ, this is not the place to speak. It occurs only in the writings of this seraphic apostle.
was with God-having a conscious personal existence distinct from God (as one is from the person he is "with"), but inseparable from Him and associated with Him (Joh 1:18; Joh 17:5; 1Jo 1:2), where "THE Father" is used in the same sense as "God" here.
was God-in substance and essence God; or was possessed of essential or proper divinity. Thus, each of these brief but pregnant statements is the complement of the other, correcting any misapprehensions which the others might occasion. Was the Word eternal? It was not the eternity of "the Father," but of a conscious personal existence distinct from Him and associated with Him. Was the Word thus "with God?" It was not the distinctness and the fellowship of another being, as if there were more Gods than one, but of One who was Himself God-in such sense that the absolute unity of the God head, the great principle of all religion, is only transferred from the region of shadowy abstraction to the region of essential life and love. But why all this definition? Not to give us any abstract information about certain mysterious distinctions in the Godhead, but solely to let the reader know who it was that in the fulness of time "was made flesh." After each verse, then, the reader must say, "It was He who is thus, and thus, and thus described, who was made flesh."

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary1:1-5 The plainest reason why the Son of God is called the Word, seems to be, that as our words explain our minds to others, so was the Son of God sent in order to reveal his Father's mind to the world. What the evangelist says of Christ proves that he is God. He asserts, His existence in the beginning; His coexistence with the Father. The Word was with God. All things were made by him, and not as an instrument. Without him was not any thing made that was made, from the highest angel to the meanest worm. This shows how well qualified he was for the work of our redemption and salvation. The light of reason, as well as the life of sense, is derived from him, and depends upon him. This eternal Word, this true Light shines, but the darkness comprehends it not. Let us pray without ceasing, that our eyes may be opened to behold this Light, that we may walk in it; and thus be made wise unto salvation, by faith in Jesus Christ.